Introduction to Decade:


INTRODUCTION:

The 1960’s were a decade of various trends, music, and historical events. Some trends were psychedelic patterns and the gray flannel suit. Popular music was by the artists The Beatles and Bob Dylan. Some historical events that occurred were the Civil Rights Act and the first man on the moon. The 60’s are a time that will live in history forever. They were a historical era that evolved into everything that we have today. It was one of the most important decades The United States ever experienced. If we didn’t have or have anything like the 60’s we would not have the United States of America that what we have today.



Timeline: names All


1960- 1969

January 20, 1961- John F. Kennedy was inaugurated as president
March 1, 1961- President Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps
April 12, 1961- Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space
May 5, 1961- Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space
August 13, 1961- Communist of East Germany build a wall at the East Berlin West Berlin border
February 20, 1962- John Glenn orbits the Earth
October 1, 1962- James Meredith enrolls at the University of Mississippi
October 1962- The installation of Soviet missiles in Cuba creates a global crisis
May 1963- Violence marks segregation demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama
August 28, 1963- Civil Rights marchers demonstrate in Washington DC
November 22, 1963- President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas
November 24, 1963- Jack Ruby shoots and kills accused assassin Lee Harvey Oswald
July 2, 1964- President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964
August 1964- Gulf of Tonkin off North Vietnam leads to crisis
November 3, 1964- Lyndon Johnson wins the election of 1964
February 21, 1965- Black Muslim Malcolm X is murdered
March 1965- March from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery
July 30, 1965- President Johnson signs the Medicare Bill
August 6, 1965- Voting Rights Act becomes law
February 3, 1966- Luna 9 landed on the moon
September 9, 1966- Star Trek aired on NBC for the first time
March 1966- Charles de Gaulle pulled France out of NATO command
July 1967- Racial riot strike Detroit
In 1967- Greece became the first Western European country to change into dictator ship
October 21, 1967- Anti- war protest at the Pentagon
March 31, 1968- President Johnson drops out of the presidential race
April 4, 1968- Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated
June 5, 1968- Robert Kennedy is shot in LA and dies the next day
January 20, 1969-Richard Nixon becomes the 37th president
August 15-17, 1969- Woodstock festival draws nearly a half a million people
July 20, 1969- Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first men to walk on the moon





Global Events, editor: Alex

Sources:
-Glennon, Lorainne. 20th Century. North Dighton: World publications inc., 1999. Print.
-http://www.mapsofworld.com/kenya/history/independence.html
-http://www.history.com/topics/space-race
-http://www.berlinermauer.se/BerlinWall/bygg.htm
World Headlines:
-Defeating Polio: 1962, the development of a vaccine for Polio nearly wiped out the disease altogether, saving many young children. It decreased by 95-100% in six different countries. Including Australia, Czech, Denmark, Sweden, U.K. and the U.S.
-Cuban Missile Crisis: In 1959 the U.S. attacked Cuba and failed, then becoming allies with the Soviets. The U.S discovered Cuba was holding nuclear weapons, the U.S. placed an embargo on Cuba. This could have led to WWIII but the Soviets backed down. A treaty was made that Cuba and the U.S. would not bother with each other.
-At&t launched the first satellite into orbit, in 1962. Named Telstar.
-Continental drift explained: 1963, Drummond Matthews and Frederick Vine proved Alfred Wegner’s theory from 1912.
-Kenya’s independence: 1963, Kenya gained independence from Britain, Jomo Kenyatta became the prime minister
World Leaders:
-Jomo Kenyatta: the first prime minister of free Kenya, for the next 15 years until his death he
transformed Kenya into a modern, capitalist, and almost democratic state
-Yuri Gagarin: First man in space, with the Soviets
Photos: Berlin Wall:
external image jGX8GzaeEcEzBeip-9DVCaLAredx40FUE_tjaKFnu1v7dOkU4bqpvtkBM0GGWn15rPJCNlr0ZVB-CAJin3XwN0eMFVysk5WneZJ-aakSCPulVmj5o9c

Man on the Moon:
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Continental Drift:
300px-Antonio_Snider-Pellegrini_Opening_of_the_Atlantic.jpg

Cuban Missile Crisis:
300px-Soviet-R-12-nuclear-ballistic_missile.jpg
Paragraph#1: The Space Race/ Man on the moon-
The end of World Warh II left the United States with another problem, known as the Cold War. Between the two superpowers of the world, the Soviet Union and the United States. The Space Race occurred out of this. Starting in the 1950’s it became another competition between the countries. The Soviet Union was working on the Sputnik, while The United States was working on the Apollo. In April 1961, the Soviets sent the first man into space, Yuri Gagarin. This was a huge step for the Soviets, which scared the Americans. The Americans thought, “Second place in the space race meant last place, and something more was needed to bolster national pride.” (Glennon, p.452) The Soviets maintained their lead in the Space race until July, 1969. When the United States landed the first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong. The United States had clearly won the race to space.
Paragraph #2: Berlin Wall-
In 1952 a border was designated between the West and East sectors of Berlin. The Germans were forbidden to cross the border. The Berlin wall was thought up after 2.6 million Germans escaped over the border. The people of East Germany were angered that many of the well educated people were leaving to find better economic standards. This was known as the “brain drain.” August 13th, 1961, East German soldiers began to stretch barbed wire across the city of Berlin. This then turned into concrete walls and electrified fences. This cut off the Communist side of the city from the Capitalist’s. The barrier was 30 miles long, separating the sectors of Germany. There were also problems between the East and West sectors because the East was the russian sector of Germany.
Primary Source (video etc.):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oo2mmM6D-XU&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCp2jTtay0w


American Foreign Policy, editor: _



American Foreign Policy


U.S. headlines-
•John F. Kennedy was the president and the vice president was Lyndon B. Johnson 1960-1963. When John F. Kennedy was murdered Lyndon B. Johnson became president and Hubert H. Humphrey was the vice president(1963-1969), then Richard Nixon took office in 1969 to 1974.

U.S. actions abroad(3 or 4)
1.Vietnam War was fought between southern Vietnam, supported by the U.S. and Northern Vietnam supported by the Soviet Union and the people’s Republic of China (1957-1975).
2. The Peace Corps, beginning in 1961, sent volunteers to help develop countries in need by building school, and digging wells for water.
3. The U.S. and the soviet union started a competition to explore space. The soviets pulled ahead in 1961 but we were determined to have to the first man on the moon and return him safely back to earth. So, on July, 1969 Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first people to walk on the moon.




U.S. reactions to foreign events(3 or 4)
1.President Kennedy’s response to the Berlin Wall emerged in 1961 when East Germany began building a Berlin Wall in order to keep fleeing Germans out. President Kennedy since Kennedy vowed to protect this city he sent American troops to West Berlin, but he didn’t want to go to war.
2.During the Cuban Missile crisis, in 1962 when the Soviets were installing missiles into Cuba, the U.S.Navy formed a blockade around Cuba to prevent Soviet Ships from bringing in more weapons.
3. John Kennedy wanted to stop the spread of communism. He created the Alliance of Progress, the United States pledged $20 billion to aid other countries in Latin America.
4. In 1961, many Americans criticized Kennedy for approving an operation to remove Fidel Castro, a Cuban unpopular dictator who was a supporter of communism, from power. Castros forces quickly responded by killing 300 of the invaders and capturing the rest




Paragraphs(2)


1.
Located behind East Germany is the city of Berlin, this was a site of one of Kennedy’s crisis’s. East Berlin was part of communist East Germany. West Berlin remained a part of prosperity and freedom. Desperate for freedom and better economic opportunities, about 2.5 million East Germans fled to West Berlin between 1949 and 1961. Khrushchev threatened to take over West Berlin. President Kennedy vowed to defend the free city. On the night of August 13th, 1961, the East German government began building the Berlin Wall in order to create a barrier between East and West Berlin. Kennedy rushed American troops to West Berlin, but he didn’t want to go to war with the Soviets over the Berlin Wall. The wall lasted for three decades, as a symbol of the Cold War.





2. Beginning in 1961, The Peace Corps is an organization sponsored by the U.S.
government that sends young people to work as volunteers in developing countries. They would
help develop countries in need by doing projects such as building schools and digging wells, for
water. President Kennedy’s idea was to change the image of “ugly Americans” stereotypes and
replacing it with the act of kindness by developing nations. After establishing the peace corps
under executive order, Kennedy gave his brother, Sargent Shriver the position as director at a
volunteers salary of one dollar a year. This Program helped motivate development and enhance
international understanding. The peace corps can be judged as a modest success story in the
history of American Foreign relations.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOQ85OEZhWg&feature=relmfu



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John F. Kennedy. 35th president 1961-1963external image ZfyNGmcElXxLpimGu0ymbsmB9Npvk1p9Gh68XfXQC8GHyR8q2igPZHkJsDCHhXkDMy1-gNXTHjSkjTIqtdO-K8ZGDm4Cyf8bZEV_34-cAxpJv8bFTQs
Lyndon B. Johnson. 36th president 1963-1969
Bibliography:
In line with text | Fixed position


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Neil Armstrong on the moon 1969external image qECqZ5WF4EEBWVElqCJZElEJZF6swYSlXT0rZ1rWaGTm8828BjBqOlSid0fbmh61jUJQPwkpkf8-CI4ySpeVkKiawLwbuVq_NTSEIYq0FStUKrz13ew
The Berlin Wall











Bibliography:
•Deverall, William and Deborah Gray White. United States History.
USA, Houghton Mifflin Hourcout Publishing Company, 2012
•"Cold War (1945–1991)." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 16 May 2012.











Home Front (American Domestic Policy: political trends, economic trends, extension of rights, Supreme Court cases), editor: sydney


The History of the Presidents in the 1960’s
The United States had two president during the 60’s decade. The first president in the 60’s was John F. Kennedy. John F. Kennedy was inaugurated on January 20th, 1961. A few months after JFK became president he established the Peace Corps. The Peace Corps were volunteers that were sent to developing countries to help with projects such as digging wells and building schools. During Kennedy’s time as president the segregation law was tested. A group known as the Freedom Riders lit a bus on fire. On May 5, 1961 the United States launched their first man to the moon, and on November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He was in Dallas when gunshots were heard. President Kennedy had been shot twice and died in a hospital in Dallas. The police arrested a possible suspect, Lee Harvey Oswald. President John F. Kennedy Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson stepped to the president position and proposed the idea of Job Corps. Job Corps is an organization within the Department of Labor that operates rural conversation camps and urban training centers for poor youth. President Johnson also signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. A big civil rights movement that happened during Johnson’s term in presidency was the Civil Right movement from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery. Lyndon B. Johnson ended his term in January of 1969.

The Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s
After John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson became president. President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the act banned segregation in public places. It also outlawed discrimination in the workplace on the basis of color, gender, religion, or national origin. This act made the African Americans push for more. They wanted equal voting rights in the South. They made a movement called Freedom Summer. This movement allowed them to push for equal voting rights. On June 21 3 people were murdered for this movement. This was when Martin Luther King Jr. began to plan the march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery. After this march Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This new act gave the federal government power to protect the African Americans voting rights. President Johnson also won the election of 1964. He had a program called the Great Society. Congress passed most of the Great Society Legislation. This included, Civil Rights Act 1964, Voting Act of 1965, Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Medicare and Medicaid Bill, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965. Malcolm X was a leader of the Nation of Islam. This had the idea of African American independence. He said that African Americans should use violence if necessary. In 1965 Malcolm X departed from the Nation of Islam and was killed by some of its members. And on April 1968 a big leader in the Civil Rights movement was murdered, Martin Luther King Jr.


The Assassination of President Kennedy
This was President John F. Kennedy. He was assassinated on November 22, 1963.  He served as president from 1960-1963.
This was President John F. Kennedy. He was assassinated on November 22, 1963. He served as president from 1960-1963.





The March from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery



The march to Montgomery was a long one. They started on March 21, 1965 and ended  on March 25, 1965. They started with 3,200 people and ended with over 25,000
The march to Montgomery was a long one. They started on March 21, 1965 and ended on March 25, 1965. They started with 3,200 people and ended with over 25,000



















The First American in Space
 Alan Shepard became the first American in space on  May 5, 1961.
Alan Shepard became the first American in space on May 5, 1961.








The First African American Enrolled in the University of Mississippi
James Meredith was the first African American to enroll in the University of Mississippi.  He was rejected twice and brought his case to court in 1961. He was later accepted due to the  fact they denied him based on race.
James Meredith was the first African American to enroll in the University of Mississippi. He was rejected twice and brought his case to court in 1961. He was later accepted due to the fact they denied him based on race.



















Lyndon B. Johnson
 Lyndon B. Johnson was the Vice President under Kennedy. He became the President after Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. He got reelected in 1964 and stepped down in 1969.
Lyndon B. Johnson was the Vice President under Kennedy. He became the President after Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. He got reelected in 1964 and stepped down in 1969.

.



The Death of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968. He was shot and killed in  Memphis, Tennessee. He was a big leader in the civil rights movement because he believed in peace not violence.
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968. He was shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee. He was a big leader in the civil rights movement because he believed in peace not violence.






The First men on the moon
 Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first men on the moon. They landed on the moon July 20th, 1969.
Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first men on the moon. They landed on the moon July 20th, 1969.





Primary Source:



Leisure Time (Arts, Sports, Fashion, Music), editor: __



LEISURE TIME (CIARA):
Sources:
Notes:

Leisure Time (Arts, Sports, Fashion, Music): Ciara Graves






Books Published:






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To Kill A Mockingbird
This was published in the 1960’s and coincidentally in the book focuses a lot on the racial tension which was also a big part of the 60’s
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A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L'engle (First published in 1962)
A Wrinkle in Time
It is a Science Fiction novel. It was an excellent book that was given the Newbery Medal.The story contains a powerful message about the power and love and the need to fight ignorance and conformity. It also shows how a misfit find their own abilities.10 million copies have been sold since it was published in 1960. This book has been a favorite for years.



Movies:

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The Sound of Music
It was released to the USA in March of 1965. It starred Julie Andrews. She was a very famous actress who is still one today and used to have an amazing voice. The Sound of Music is a lot of people’s favorite musical. It was very popular back in the 60’s and still is today.


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Mary Poppins
Another popular movies was Mary Poppins made in 1964 and was a children’s favorite. Julie Andrews also starred in this movie. It was released the the USA in 1964. It was a movie but it was also a musical too.




Fashion Trends/Music:


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The Gray Flannel Suit
The gray flannel suit- it was a symbol of the eras conformity. (1960's)


Men really were not very concerned with fashion. At work they had to work in a uniform. The uniform was the Gray Flannel Suit. It was conservatively tailored. It was worn with a white shirt and tie. This standard suit style was so popular that it was a symbol for the businessman’s conformity. Younger men didn’t really wear the gray flannel suit. This suit was for men who were adults and worked. This uniform was the choice for corporate males.



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The Beatles

The Beatles were four young men that formed a rock and roll group. They were extremely popular in the 60’s. They are originally from Liverpool, England. The Beatles members are John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. After being number one in 1963 in Great Britain they started to hit the U.S airwaves. U.S teens went crazy. When they started their U.S tour in 1964 teens were very excited. They were talented, young, and good-looking. They performed in suits and sharp black boots. They wore their hair long below their ears and bangs below their foreheads. Boys wanted to look like the Beatles. The two lead singers were John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Their songs were very upbeat. They had a number one song in 1964 “I want to hold your hand.” Crowds always mobbed them wherever they went.



__www.youtube.com/watch?v=MKHFUKZ-IXE__








Sports:









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Muhammad Ali was a boxer and was first famous in 1960.His real name is Cassius Marcellus Clay. In 1960 he won the Amateur Athletic Union. The vietnam war interrupted his boxing career. He was forced into the Military but refused to serve because it went against his beliefs. he is famous for the quote, “Float like a butterfly and sting like a bee.”



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Wilma Rudolph
She won three gold medals in track and field. She was the United Press Athlete in 1960. She was the Associate Press woman of the year athlete in 1960






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ABC in 1961 launched a weekend tv sports program Abc’s Wide World of Sports. It showed athletic contests from around the world.



Inventions:










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Touch Tone Telephone
The First touch tone telephone was introduced in 1963.It was the first phone that connects a call from one phone to another




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Microwave Oven
The Microwave Oven was made in the late 60’s and was a revolutionary way to cook. Microwave ovens were expensive when they first came out.




Photos:
Paragraph#1:
Paragraph #2:







BIBLIOGRAPHY (ALL):
"A Wrinkle in Time (Time, #1) by Madeleine L'Engle - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists ." Share Book Recommendations With Your Friends, Join Book Clubs, Answer Trivia. good reads, n.d. Web. 15 May 2012. <__http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18131.A_Wrinkle_in_Time>.__

Glennon, Lorainne. 20th Century. North Dighton: World publications inc., 1999. Print.

Lindop, Edmund . America in the 1960's. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2010. Print.

"To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists ." Share Book Recommendations With Your Friends, Join Book Clubs, Answer Trivia. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2012. <__http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2657.To_Kill_a_Mockingbird>.__


"1960s: Fashion." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 3: 1940s-1950s. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 657. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 16 May 2012.

Louisville, the. "Muhammad Ali." Nova Online Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/events/ali98.htm>.


L'Engle, Madeleine. "Synopsis of A Wrinkle in Time." The Learning Stream. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 May 2012. <http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/Wrinkle/wrnkl_synop.htm>.


Library, Wilma Rudolph. New York: New American, and 1977. . "Wilma Rudolph biography." Lakewood Public Library (Lakewood, Ohio). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/rudo-wil.htm>.


"To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee Book Review - Harper Lee's Classic Book - To Kill A Mockingbird." Book Reviews and Recommendations - Resources for Book Clubs and Readers. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://bestsellers.about.com/od/fictionreviews/gr/mockingbird_r.htm>.


"What Is a Touch Tone Telephone?." wiseGEEK: clear answers for common questions. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 May 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-touch-tone-telephone.htm>

"Kenya Independence." World Map. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://www.mapsofworld.com/kenya/history/independence.html>

"Berlin Wall." berlinmauer. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2012. <-http://www.berlinermauer.se/BerlinWall/bygg.htm>

"history." www.history.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2012. <-http://www.history.com/topics/space-race>.