Names: Patty Swanson, Libby Muir, Jake Howell, and Blaise Glowiak

1970's

Introduction:
A lot of major events happened in the 1970's. Many of these events shaped our country into what it is today. Nixon's Foreign Policy with China helped end the war with the Vietnamese. The Iranian Revolution in 1979 was the start of the antagonistic relationship between the U.S and Iran countries. The Vietnam War, which we withdrew from in 1973, was the first war the United States had lost. Watergate in 1972-1974 put Nixon's administration in big trouble. 1970's music changed the way Rock and Roll was played. Also there were a lot of supreme court cases had changed the way how life is today, for example in the Oregon vs. Mitchell case the government tried to change the voting age for state elections, but the Supreme Court agreed with Oregon about how it was unfair that the government could choose for the state. The 1970's had a lot of important events that had made an impact in history, and in this century today.


Timeline:

1970-
• First Earth Day noticed
• Beatles break up
• Kent State and Jackson State shooting
• Apollo 13 fails to reach the Moon
1971-
• 26th Amendment ratified (18 as standard voting age)
• Pentagon papers published
• Banned cigarette advertisements on television and radio
1972-
• Apollo 17 flies to the moon
• Nixon reelected as President
• Watergate Scandal
1973-
• The Senate Watergate hearings (investigating of the President)
• End of Vietnam War (Paris peace accords)
• "Skylab" launched as the first space station for the U.S
1974-
• The Super Outbreak (the largest series of tornadoes in history)
• Hank Aaron, who played for Atlanta Braves, breaks Babe Ruth's home run record by hitting his 715th career home run
• President Nixon resigns
1975-
Bill Gates establishes the Microsoft corporation
• President Ford survived 2 attempted assassinations in a 17-day time span
• Saturday Night Live premieres on NBC
1976-
• The Copyright Act of 1976 makes sweeping changes to the United States copyright law
• Americans celebrate the Bicentennial
• U.S presidential election, 1976 (Jimmy Carter, of Georgia, defeats President Ford)
1977-
• Jimmy Carter elected as President
• First home personal computer released for retail sale
• The New York City blackout of 1977, lasted for 25 hours
• Elvis Presley Dies
1978-
• The senate votes to turn the Panama Canal Over to Panamanian control on December 31
• Harvey Milk is assassinated by Dan White in San Francisco on November 27.
• The volkswagen becomes the second non-American automobile manufacturer to open a plant in the United States
1979-
Three mile island nuclear accident ( America's most serious nuclear power plant accidents in history)
• Iran hostage crisis begins.
• American airlines flight 191 crashes after takeoff from O'Hare International Airport. (killing all 271 aboard and 2 on the ground, this is the deadliest flying accident on U.S soil.)

Slogan of the 1970's
"That's Sick"
"I'm a pepper"
"I am your father"

Global Events, editor: Jake Howell
During the 1970's, there were many terrorist attacks, wars, and other important things such as the Iranian Islamic revolution and the Munich Massacre that occured in the 1970's.

The Munich Massacre

The Munich Massacre was a series of events that occurred during the 1972 summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. A team of Palestinian terrorists had traveled to Germany to capture and murder the Israeli athletes. During the situation (after they captured the hostages), they demanded the release of 234 prisoners in Israel. The following operation, operation wrath of god, was to find, track down, and kill the Palestinians involved in the massacre. In the hostage taking process, many of the athletes fought back. Few were able to escape. Later on, they had sent out the dead bodies of the athletes as warnings. The massacre was considered a failed rescue.

This is one of the most recognizable photos of the Munich Massacre.
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The Islamic Revolution

The Islamic revolution in Iran was lead by Ayatollah (bishop) Ruhollah Khomeini in January 1978 and was made ruler of Iran in December 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini had managed to overthrow Shah (king) Mohammed Reza of Iran. The people of Iran then declared the country to be the Islamic Republic of Iran. Some to most of the protests during the revolution were violent. One of the main results of the revolution was the Iran-Iraq conflict. Once the revolution was over, a theocracy was created based upon the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists.

Signs of Ruhollah Khomeini were very popular during the protests.
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People were protesting in Tehran, the capitol of Iran, in 1979.
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The Vietnam War


One of the most important events that happened in the 1970's was the end of the Vietnam war. The Vietnam war was the first and only war, so far, that the United States had lost. The casualties reached approximately 58,000-59,000. In 1973, Nixon had ordered the Army to retreat from Vietnam after the Paris Peace Accords. Later on, Nixon was impeached and left office. There were a very large amount of protesters to the war, many of which we know as Hippies. By the Government, they were referred to as "Doves", or the people that oppose the war. The ones who supported were called "Hawks".

Protesters or "Doves", that oppose the Vietnam War
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U.S Helicopter Gunships moving over land in Cambodia
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Primary Source:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kY0ixG94cHE
Newscast Documenting the Iranian Revolution in February, 1979


American Foreign Policy, editor: Libby Muir


U.S Presidents Headlines:

- Richard M Nixon’s Foreign Policy Toward China, a Success or a Failure in 1972 Richard Nixon used the 'realpolitik" (actual politics) strategy to end the Vietnam War by using the pressure from the Soviet Union and China that forced the Vietnamese to negotiate. During the ongoing Cold War, the U.S had two major rivalries, the Soviet Union and China. The realpolitik would hopefully lead to important changes. By 1970 Richard M. Nixon had thought that it was in America’s interest to improve the U.S relations with both of the communist powers. China had lifted restrictions on trade and travel and he opened negotiations with China’s leaders. Nixon’s trip to China opened the eyes of the Soviets. There were people that believed that the Foreign Policy toward China was a success and some people thought that it was a failure. One reason why the policy showed success and growth was because by having relations with Chinese leaders it opened up the opportunity to have relations with the Soviets. Also a statement said by Henry Kissinger explained, “We had transformed our diplomacy. We had brought flexibility to our foreign policy... But we made a new departure and have traveled some distance down the road.” He explains that this policy has made its way and it has come a long way. Nixon and Kissinger had made a trip to Beijing, China in October of 1971, so that they could count on China to help balance and contain the U.S.S.R, this was to help the U.S pull ourselves out of the war without directly having to pull out . The other idea of Nixon’s and Kissinger’s policy being a failure came from the idea that the policy alienated important U.S allies it failed to implement a lasting period of less hostile relations (dénte).
- Were M. Nixon’s and Henry Kissinger’s (Secretary of State) Approaches to Foreign Policy Unified?
In Richard Nixon’s administration of the foreign policy was dominated by two individuals, President Nixon and his national security adviser Henry Kissinger. Henry Kissinger's approach was towards international affairs, while Nixon’s was by the means of elimnating communism. Both elements of Nixon’s policy included both approaches to strategy. The strategy escalated the war in Vietnam because of the issue of communist expansion in Asia. The foreign policy also engaged in arms control and involved talks with the Soviet Union. Frequently during 1972 it was whether or not both approaches to the Foreign Policy were unified? One side agreeing that Nixon and Kissinger’s ideas came together and constructed a clear policy had stated that it is not easy to keep a foreign policy in democracy as it shifted because of peoples constant opinions and beliefs. An example of hard working people that had a strategy and plan for the U.S in the 1970’s was Henry Kissinger, who had thought of making a policy-making apparatus that would shield the foreign policy form the shifting public opinion and the policies showed guided principles that informed many people about what needed to be done. Kissinger and President Nixon demonstrated a unified team, that had a plan for their country. Lastly the other public opinion saying that they were not unified stated that Nixon didn’t even know Kissinger until he had met him at a small event, they said that the two couldn’t have been anymore opposite of each other, this is one example of how people felt about two different sides that they seemed to think didn’t mix well together.
- Gerald Ford Inherits Richard Nixon’s Foreign Policy and Advisers
- Was Jimmy Carter a Successful President in the Realm of the Foreign Policy?
- Was Jimmy Carter’s Emphasis on Human Rights a Sound Basis for the Foreign Policy?
U.S Actions Abroad Headline:
- Nixon Participate in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) in Moscow, May 1972
(Viewpoints) U.S Reactions to Foreign Events Headline:

- Nixon and Kissinger Disagreed Significantly on Foreign Policy
- “Their Unlikely Pairing was Primarily a Result of Internal Republican Party Politics.”
- Changes and Chances in American-Soviet Relations -Peoples Reactions
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President Richard M. Nixon and Mao Zedong
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President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger

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Time Magazine: Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger
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President Nixon


Primary Source:
Richard Nixon's Address to the Nation on the Vietnam War
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXYAg9mhlmM

Bibliography:
"Nixon’s Foreign Policy: Was Richard M. Nixon’s Foreign Policy Toward China a Success or a Failure?" History in Dispute. Ed. Robert J. Allison. Vol. 2: American Social and Political Movements, 1945-2000: Pursuit of Liberty. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 168-174. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 23 May 2012.
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=UHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2876200029&mode=view&userGroupName=dove10524&jsid=34e64d1320fbe8f794ad85f8afcb7c8c

"Nixon and Kissinger: Were Richard M. Nixon’s and Henry Kissinger’s Approaches to Foreign Policy Unified?" History in Dispute. Ed. Dennis Showalter and Paul du Quenoy. Vol. 6: The Cold War: Second Series. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 198-205. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 23 May 2012.
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=UHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2876600036&mode=view&userGroupName=dove10524&jsid=502465021ff5e4eb019dabc6b1ccbf81

http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0307-8/policy.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon

Home Front (American Domestic Policy: political trends, economic trends, extension of rights, Supreme Court cases), editor: Patty Swanson


Supreme Court Cases:
• Milliken vs. Bradley
- Dealing with the planned desegregation of busing with public school students in detroit.
Lynch vs. Donnelly
- Whether the inclusion of a crèche in the city's christmas display violates establishment clause of the first amendment of the constitution.
Williams vs. Florida
- Ruled that states should use 6- people ( rather than 12) jurys on a case
Oregon vs. Mitchell

In the 1970’s congress passed a law that all states needed to lower there voting age to 18 years old. Many states thought it was wrong, that the federal government could make rules for there state elections. The state of Oregon filed a suit against the federal government to overturn the new law. John Mitchell represented the United States federal government because he was the attorney general. Oregon argued that the United States government could set the age for voting for government but not for state elections. The Supreme Court agreed with Oregon that they should have the power to decide for their state. This was important because it showed that in America there is a balance of power between the states and the government. It also showed that the Supreme Court will stick up for the states if the United States Government tries to take to much power.

Congress:
Gay Liberation Act
• urged gay people to 'come out' to there families and friends.
Clean Water Act
• Federal water pollution control

Endangered Species Act:

The Endangered Species Act is an act that provides the protection of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants. This act was created by the 93rd United States congress and signed by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. This act was enforced by two federal agencies. The agencies were, The United States Fish and Wildlife Service. And the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration handles ocean species. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has responsibility over freshwater fish and all land animals. Species that occur in both habitats are managed by both agencies. The Endangered Species Act’s goal is to prevent the extinction of endangered plants and animal life, and to rebuild those populations by removing threats to their survival. Some positive effects this act had was, that In November of 2011, fifty-one species have been delisted from the endangered list, and twenty-three species due to recovery. Some Species that have increased in population size since being placed on the endangered list are the Bald Eagle, Gray Whale, Grizzly Bear, Whooping Crane and many more.
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The number of extinctions have risen so high in the 1900's, that something needed to be done. The Endangered Species act in 1970, helped slow the extinctions for this century



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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
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United States Fish and Wildlife Service


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United States Supreme court is where Oregon v. Mitchell court case was located


Primary Source:
Henry Kissinger talks about the Vietnam war-

"The Vietnam War required us to emphasize the national interest rather than abstract principles. What president Nixon and I tried to do was unnatural. And that is why we didn't make it."

Bibliography:
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/h/henry_a_kissinger_3.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Water_Act

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_Species_Act

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jf45FeeZKkM

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_Supreme_Court_cases_by_the_Burger_Court

http://thesixthmassextinction.blogspot.com/

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Leisure Time (Arts, Sports, Fashion, Music), editor: Blaise Glowiak

Movies

The Godfather,1972
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JAWS,1975
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Books

The Lorax By Dr. Seuss
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70's TV

During the 1970’s, the number of households with Televisions increased from 59 million to 75 million. Cable subscriptions also increased from 4.5 million to 14.1 million. Most of the TV shows in the 1970’s were sitcoms. Many of these sitcoms like "M*A*S*H" and "All in the Family" dealt with social issues like racism and Vietnam. Some of the famous actors from the 1960’s had their own TV shows. An example would be Mary Tyler Moore who was in the Dick Van Dyke show, and in the 1960’s got her own show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show. The 1970’s also saw the demise of the television westerns that were popular in the 1960’s. The most popular Shows in the 1970’s had spin-off shows; most of these shows weren’t as popular as the originals.

M*A*S*H

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All In The Family

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Top 10 favorite TV shows
1. All in the Family - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rStu_cfDx-Y
2.The Brady Bunch
3.The Mary Tyler Moore Show
4.The Carol Burnett Show
5. Saturday Night Live
6. Alice
7.The Bob Newhart Show
8.The Jeffersons
9.The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour
10.Taxi

Fashion

Leisure Suits
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70's Music

The 1970's saw a break up rock into sub-genres. Many different types of music came out of the Psychedelic music of the 1960's. These genres include Southern rock, hard rock/metal, Punk, and progressive rock. To many people, the 1970’s were the greatest decade for rock. Some of rock music’s greatest songs were written in the seventies. Songs like "Stairway to Heaven" and "American Pie" are still considered to be the greatest songs in rock. When people think of the 70’s they think Disco. Disco had many fans but it only lasted a few years. 1970’s music still has an impact on music today. Many bands like Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath inspired many generations of Heavy Metal Bands. Even though Disco lived a short time, it inspired many electronic and pop musicians, and is the forefather of today's club music.

The Eagles on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine
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Led Zeppelin playing live at The Forum, Los Angeles, CA
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Top 10 songs of the 1970's
1. Hotel California by the Eagles
2. Stairway to heavenby Led Zeppelin- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcL---4xQYA
3. Stayin' Alive by The Bee Gee's3.
4. American Pie by Don McLean
5. Heart of Glass by Blondie
6. Let it Be by The Beatlesexternal image led-zeppelin-8JXV_o_tn.jpg
7. Dancing Queen by Abba
8. Bridge over Troubled Water by Simon and Garfunkel
9. Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen
10. My Sharona by The Knack

Bibliography

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1970s_in_television

http://www.classic70s.com/70s-rock.html

http://www.alaskajim.com/polls/202topsongs1970s_results.html

http://www.imbd.com/list/GreOwbOQt0Y/

http://www.super70's.com/super70's/tv/

QUIZ REVIEW:
1. Where did the Munich Massacre occur?2. Who was made ruler of Iran in December of 1979?3. Name a president in the 1970s.4. Who was Richard Nixon’s National Security advisor and helped him control the foreign policy? (same person)5. Name is one slogan in the 1970s. 6. What was the Act called, that congress created, that provided the protection of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants?7. When was the watergate scandal?8. What did most of sitcoms like M*A*S*H and “All in the Family” usually deal and talk about?9. Name a popular song in the 1970s.10. Name one important event that happened in 1977.11. During the Cold War, who or what 2 places were the 2 major rivalries of the United states. 12. Name a T.V show that was showed in the 1970s13. Name on Supreme Court case in the 1970s